martes, 9 de octubre de 2012

How to Make Homemade Sparkling Wine


HOW TO MAKE HOMEMADE SPARKLING WINE

Delicious sparkling wine can be made from many ingredients but the best are probably apples, pears, grapes, gooseberries, and rhubarb, although some darker fruits will make attractive pink or red variations.

Firstly, produce a wine from the chosen ingredients in the normal manner, ensuring that you do not add too much sugar to the must — 1.1 kg (2 1/2 lb) per 4.5 litres (1 gallon) is about right — and this should give an initial hydrometer reading of between 1.080 and 1.086. By way of an example, let us look at the method for making a sparkling apple wine. Chop 2 kg (4 1/2 lb) of apples into small pieces and put them into a fermentation bin with 225 g (8 oz) of chopped raisins. Pour 2.25 litres (4 pints) of cold water over the fruit. Dissolve 1.1 kg (2 1/2 lb) of sugar in 1.75 litres (3 pints) of boiling water, add it to the pulp, and leave it to cool. When it is lukewarm add the grated rind and the juice of one lemon, 5 ml (1 tsp) pectin destroying enzyme, a sachet of wine yeast, and 5 ml (1 tsp) of vitaminized yeast nutrient. Finally, add a Campden tablet, cover the bin securely, and leave the must to ferment for eight or nine days, stirring and mashing the pulp daily. Strain the liquid off through a fine mesh straining bag into a fermentation jar, top up with cold water and fit a fermentation lock. Put the jar in a warm place until fermentation is complete and the wine begins to clear.

Ferment the wine until all the sugar has been used up and a dry wine has been produced. Rack the wine at suitable intervals until it is perfectly clear. If necessary, add finings, or filter the wine to remove any haze. Then leave the wine to mature for about six months.

After the six months dissolve 65 g (2 1/2 oz) of sugar in each 4.5 litres (1 gallon) of the wine. Prepare a champagne yeast in a starter bottle using 300 ml (1/2 pint) of fruit juice, 25 g (1 oz) of sugar, a pinch of citric acid, and a pinch of nutrient and, when it is fermenting vigorously, add it to the wine and seal the jar with a fermentation lock. Champagne yeasts have been specially developed to produce the desired flavour and to throw a firm sediment, so always use these rather than ordinary wine yeast which may be difficult to clear and liable to spoil your sparkling wine.

Clean and sterilize some champagne bottles to store the wine in. It is absolutely essential to use proper champagne bottles, because only these are strong enough to withstand the high pressure of carbon dioxide gas formed by the wine undergoing fermentation. Always use sound bottles, discarding any that are chipped or weakened in any way. An exploding bottle could be extremely dangerous, and all sensible precautions should be taken to avoid it occurring.

When the wine is fermenting thoroughly, siphon it into bottles, filling them to 5 cm (2 in) below the mouth of each bottle. Seal them with a hollow plastic stopper, and place a wire cage, called a muselet, over each stopper, tightening them firmly over the mouth of the bottle. Label the bottles making sure that you record the date of secondary fermentation as well as the date you did the bottling.

Put the bottles in a warm place for about a week so that the fermentation will proceed well, and then move them to a cool position where they can be stored for several months or a year if possible. During this period the bottles should be kept upside down, so that the yeast deposit that forms from die fermentation is collected inside the hollow stopper. Plastic stoppers are now available with a short tube sticking out from the flat top. This allows sediment to pass through the hollow stopper to be collected in the tube. The tube is cut off to remove the deposits, before the wine is served.

When the wine is ready for serving, place the neck of the bottle into some crushed ice until the sediment inside the stopper has frozen. Remove the wire cage and ease out the stopper, holding the bottle horizontal until the moment the stopper, containing the frozen sediment, pops out.

The secondary fermentation will have used up all of the sugar, and the sparkling wine will, therefore, be very dry. To overcome this the wine may be sweetened with either one saccharin tablet to each bottle, or a solution of 450 g (1 lb) of caster sugar dissolved in 600 ml (1 pint) of wine and added to suit individual taste.

After sweetening, seal the botde again with a clean stopper and rewire it until the wine is required, perhaps an hour or so later. Serve the sparkling wine at a temperature of about 8°C (45°F).

- Put the grapes or chopped fruit into a fermentation bin.
- Add the remaining ingredients and a Campden tablet.
- Dissolve the sugar in boiling water.
- Cover the bin securely and leave to ferment for several days.
- Strain the liquid into a fermentation far.
- Rack the wine at intervals until it is perfectly clear.
- Top up with cold water an fit a fermentation lock.
- Dissolve 65 g (2 1/2 oz) of sugar in each 4.5 litre (gallon) of wine.
- Prepare a champagne yeast in a starter bottle.
- When the wine is fermenting, siphon it into champagne bottles.
- Add the yeast starter to the wine and fit a fermentation lock.
- Seal the bottles with hollow stoppers ans wire cages.
- Stick on labels and record the date of bottling.
- Store upside down so that any sediment collects in the stoppers.
- Place the neck of the bottle into some crushed ice.
- Hold the bottle horizontally and ease out the stopper.

MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION

Sometimes an ordinary wine a year or more old will accidentally become sparkling. This is caused by a malolactic fermentation which is usually the result of not using enough Campden tablets to destroy all the bacteria present.

Many fruits contain malic acid, and this can be converted into lactic acid and carbon dioxide by a micro-organism. The result of this reaction is that the wine becomes less sharp and slighdy sparkling. Although a pleasant-tasting wine may be produced by malolactic fermentation, you should not try to encourage such quirks of fate. It is more likely that harmful bacteria will flourish if you do not use enough Campden tablets, and your wine will be ruined.

2 comentarios:

  1. Great information.You described very well how to make sparkling wine at home.Thanks to share this information.
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