viernes, 19 de julio de 2013

Épamprage, Évasivage, Ébourgeonnage,



ÉPAMPRAGE / ÉVASIVAGE / ÉBOURGEONNAGE /

French: Épamprage, Évasivage, Ébourgeonnage.

Inglish: Crown Suckering, Desuckering, Shoot thinning.

German: Ausbrechen, Ausschneiden.

Spanish: Espergurado.


- Desuckering: is the viticultural practice of removing unwanted young shoots. Known in most parts of France as épamprage, the practice is common to most vineyards of the world. Typically, the shoots removed are either on the trunk or in the head of the vine, and grow in spring from buds surviving in the old wood. These shoots are termed water shoots and for the majority of vine varieties have no bunches of grapes. Varieties differ in their production of water shoots; gewürztraminer, for example, produces many, while others produce few.

The operation is carried out in spring, several weeks after budbreak, when the water shoots are 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in) long. The work is relatively tiresome, as for many vineyards the shoots can be near the ground, although shoots can be removed from trunks mechanically with no damage to the trunk by mounting a rotating cylinder with rubber straps attached on the front of a tractor.

In California, desuckering is also carried out on cordon-trained vines and so can alternatively be termed shoot thinning.


- Shoot thinning: vineyard operation normally carried out by hand in the early spring which consists of breaking off unwanted shoots arising from the vine’s head or cordon. Sometimes these shoots have no bunches and are called water shoots. The shoot-thinning operation can be done most quickly when the shoots are 20-40 cm/8-15 in long and the bunches are quite visible, which allows discrimination between fruitful and non-fruitful shoots. The aim of shoot thinning is to reduce the density of the canopy and to avoid leaf congestion later in the season. This can help improve wine quality (canopy management) but is common only in regions with plentiful, relatively inexpensive labour. Shoot thinning is the subject of mechanization, with early prototypes developed by Professor Justin Morris at the University of Arkansas.


- Espergura: consiste en la eliminación o limpieza (la palabra proviene del latín ex-purgare que significa "limpiar") de brotes herbáceos que nacen tanto en la madera vieja (tronco y brazos), como en los pulgares y/o varas con el objetivo de definir exactamente las yemas dejadas en la poda de invierno, mantener el sistema de formación del viñedo y favorecer la producción y la calidad de las uvas. En la Rioja se dejan dos brotes por cada pulgar.

La realización de una adecuada labor de espergura conlleva muchos beneficios para el viñedo:
- Se regula la producción a los objetivos buscados con la poda de invierno
- Se equilibra la relación vegetación/producción.
- Se estimula el crecimiento de los pámpanos que permanecen.
- Se eliminan los pámpanos situados en las zonas no deseables, evitando el envejecimiento prematuro de la planta.
- Se mejora la sanidad de la planta mediante la aireación, la penetración de la luz, la fácil introducción de los tratamientos fitosanitarios.
- Se facilitara la posterior mecanización de viñedo.
- Se favorece un microclima propicio del racimo para su correcta maduración, etc.


- Épamprage: est une opération horticole consistant à débarrasser un cep de vigne des pampres afin de favoriser la maturation des branches fruitières porteuses de raisin.

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