jueves, 30 de enero de 2014

Nuevo Protocolo para la Lucha contra la Eutipiosis (Brazo Negro) en el Viñedo



NUEVO PROTOCOLO PARA LA LUCHA CONTRA LA EUTIPIOSIS (BRAZO NEGRO) EN EL VIÑEDO

Fuente: www.infowine.com

Un trabajo de investigación australiano ha identificado una nueva herramienta para el control de la eutipiosis a través de un nuevo tratamiento de las heridas de poda que ahorra tiempo y dinero y limita el uso de fungicidas.

Este nuevo protocolo de defensa es el resultado de un proyecto de tres años concluido recientemente cuyo título es “Optimising management of eutypa dieback” y que ha sido llevado a cabo por el Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) y financiado por el GWRDC .

Hasta la fecha el método de control más eficaz y generalizado en Australia es la aplicación con pincel sobre las heridas de dos productos: GreenSeal, una pintura que contiene el fungicida tebuconazol y Vinevax, tratamiento biológico que utiliza Trichoderma.

El proyecto coordinado por Matthew Ayres, no sólo ha identificado un nuevo método para el tratamiento de las heridas, más barato y más rápido de aplicar, también ha reconocido la necesidad de ampliar los fungicidas registrados para prevenir la infección de las heridas de poda y la posibilidad de utilizar pulverizadores comerciales específicos mucho más eficaces.

OPTIMISING MANAGEMENT OF EUTYPA DIEBACK

Source: www.gwrdc.com.au

Abstract:

Management strategies for eutypa dieback have been optimised by identifying new pruning wound treatments that control eutypa dieback, generating efficacy data for fungicide label registration and demonstrating the use of commercial sprayers to apply treatments to pruning wounds effectively.

Summary:

Eutypa dieback is a major disease of grapevines worldwide which causes considerable economic loss to the $8.3 billion Australian wine industry and is caused by the fungus Eutypa lata. The fungus infects vines through pruning wounds and colonises wood tissue causing dieback of cordons, stunting of green shoots, leaf distortion, poor fruit set, uneven berry ripening and, if not controlled, eventually kills vines. Eutypa dieback is now recognised as a significant problem in most cool climate growing regions of southern Australia where it threatens the sustainability of many vineyards.

Currently, the only method of controlling eutypa dieback, once established in vines, is by removal of all infected wood tissue from the vine using remedial surgery. A more cost effective method of control of the disease is to prevent entry of E. lata into the vines by protecting pruning wounds.

A number of pruning wound treatments, including fungicides and alternative products, have been evaluated for efficacy in controlling eutypa dieback. Fungicides from three fungicide activity groups, Folicur (tebuconazole), Shirlan (fluazinam) and Cabrio (pyraclostrobin), provided control of the disease at the label rates currently recommended for control of other grapevine diseases. Permits are being sought for their use as pruning wound protectants during vine dormancy. Use of these products would provide a greater range of options for growers to manage the disease.

The “alternative” products, garlic, lactoferrin and the biocontrol product Serenade, provided some control of eutypa dieback, but less than that of conventional fungicides. These may provide options for organic growers and those wishing to reduce use of synthetic fungicides.

A detached cane assay (DCA) was developed that allows assessment of pruning wound protectants using live single-node cuttings under controlled conditions. This assay can provide efficacy data on wound treatments in as little as 6 weeks from establishment, compared with up to 18 months for a field trial. The method also allows for evaluation of treatments at decreased disease pressure, more reflective of that occurring naturally. In order to assess the ability of treatments to control eutypa dieback, field trials must be conducted, but the DCA allows for a rapid screening of treatments to support field results and to generate additional data to assist with product.

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