CITY OF NOTTINGHAM IN ENGLAND
Nottingham is a city in Nottinghamshire, England, 30 miles (48 km) south of Sheffield and 30 miles (48 km) north of Leicester.
Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making, bicycle (notably Raleigh bikes) and tobacco industries. It was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination; in 2011, visitors spent over £1.5 billion - the sixth highest amount in England.
In 2013, Nottingham had an estimated population of 310,837 with the wider urban area, which includes many of the city's suburbs, having a population of 729,977. Its urban area is the largest in the East Midlands and the second largest in the Midlands. The population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,543,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50.9bn (2014). The city is also ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.
Nottingham has an award-winning public transport system, including the largest publicly owned bus network in England and is also served by Nottingham railway station and the modern Nottingham Express Transit tram system.
It is also a major sporting centre, and in October 2015 was named 'Home of English Sport'. This accolade came just over a year after Nottingham was named as the UK's first City of Football.
In Anglo-Saxon times the area was part of the Kingdom of Mercia, and was known in the Brythonic language as Tigguo Cobauc, meaning Place of Caves. In Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog and Irish Gaelic as Na Tithe Uaimh "The Cavey Dwelling". When it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as "Snotingaham"; the homestead of Snot's people (Inga = the people of; Ham = homestead). Some authors derive "Nottingham" from Snottenga, caves, and ham, but "this has nothing to do with the English form".
Nottingham Castle was constructed in the 11th century on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen. The Anglo-Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall and Law Courts. A settlement also developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle. Eventually, the space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later.
On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the Castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John, including the Sheriff of Nottingham. It was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the final showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw.
By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of a thriving export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham Alabaster. The town became a county corporate in 1449 giving it effective self-government, in the words of the charter, "for eternity". The Castle and Shire Hall were expressly excluded and remained as detached Parishes of Nottinghamshire.
One of those highly impressed by Nottingham in the late 18th century was the German traveller C. P. Moritz, who wrote in 1782, "Of all the towns I have seen outside London, Nottingham is the loveliest and neatest. Everything had a modern look, and a large space in the centre was hardly less handsome than a London square. A charming footpath leads over the fields to the highway, where a bridge spans the Trent.... Nottingham... with its high houses, red roofs and church steeples, looks excellent from a distance."
During the Industrial Revolution, much of Nottingham's prosperity was founded on the textile industry; in particular, the city became an internationally important centre of lace manufacture. In 1831 citizens rioted in protest against the Duke of Newcastle's opposition to the Reform Act 1832, setting fire to his residence, Nottingham Castle.
In common with the UK textile industry, Nottingham's textile sector fell into decline in the decades following World War II. Little textile manufacture now takes place in Nottingham, however, many of the former industrial buildings in the Lace Market district have been restored and put to new uses.
Nottingham was one of the boroughs reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, and at that time consisted of the parishes of St Mary, St Nicholas and St Peter. It was expanded in 1877 by adding the parishes of Basford, Brewhouse Yard, Bulwell, Radford, Sneinton, Standard Hill and parts of the parishes of West Bridgford, Carlton, Wilford (North Wilford). In 1889 Nottingham became a county borough under the Local Government Act 1888.
City status was awarded as part of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations of Queen Victoria, being signified in a letter from the prime minister, the Marquess of Salisbury to the mayor, dated 18 June 1897. Nottingham was extended in 1933 by adding Bilborough and Wollaton, parts of the parishes of Bestwood Park and Colwick, and a recently developed part of the Beeston Urban District. A further boundary extension was granted in 1951 when Clifton and Wilford (south of the River Trent) were incorporated into the city.
Electric trams were introduced to the city in 1901; they served the city for 35 years until the trolleybus network was expanded in 1936. Trams were reintroduced after 68 years when a new network opened in 2004.
In the sporting world, Nottingham is home to the world's oldest professional football club, Notts County, which was formed in 1862. The town's other football club, Nottingham Forest, (under manager Brian Clough) had a period of success between 1977 and 1993; winning the First Division, four League Cups, a UEFA Super Cup and two European Cups. During this time Forest signed Trevor Francis, Britain's first £1million footballer, who joined the club in February 1979 from Birmingham City.
The city was the site of race riots in 1958, centred on the St Ann's neighbourhood.
During the second half of the 20th century Nottingham saw urban growth with the development of new public and private housing estates and new urban centres, which have engulfed former rural villages such as Bilborough, Wollaton, Gedling and Bramcote. South of the river there has also been expansion with new areas such as Edwalton and West Bridgford, adding to Nottingham's urban sprawl. Although this growth slowed towards the end of the century, the modern pressures for more affordable and council housing is back on the political agenda and there is now pressure on the Green Belt which surrounds the city.
- Local government: Nottingham City Council is a unitary authority based at Nottingham Council House in Old Market Square. It consists of 55 councillors, representing 20 wards, who are elected every four years; the last elections being held on 5 May 2011.
The city also has ceremonial Lord Mayor who is selected by city councillors from among themselves. The position is ceremonial and has no formal power or authority.
The City of Nottingham's boundaries are tightly drawn and exclude several suburbs and satellite towns that are usually considered part of Greater Nottingham. The western suburbs of Beeston, Stapleford and Eastwood are administered by Broxtowe borough council. Further west still, the Nottingham urban district extends into Derbyshire where Ilkeston and Long Eaton are administered by Erewash borough council, and Ripley by Amber Valley.
To the north, Hucknall is controlled by Ashfield district council, while in the east Arnold and Carlton form part of the borough of Gedling. South of the river, the suburb of West Bridgford lies in Rushcliffe, as do the outlying villages of Ruddington and Tollerton and the town of Bingham. In December 2011, Rushcliffe, was named one of the 20 most desirable places to live in the UK by the Halifax Building Society. It was one of only four places outside the south of the country to appear in the top 50.
- UK Parliament: Nottingham has three UK parliamentary constituency seats within its boundaries. Nottingham North has been represented since 1987 by Labour MP Graham Allen, Nottingham East since 2010 by Labour MP Chris Leslie and Nottingham South since 2010 by Labour MP Lilian Greenwood.
- European Parliament: Nottingham lies within the East Midlands European parliamentary constituency. In 2014, it elected five MEPs: Margot Parker (UKIP), Roger Helmer (UKIP), Andrew Lewer (Conservative), Emma McClarkin (Conservative) and Glenis Willmott (Labour).
- Other: Emergency services are provided by Nottinghamshire Police, Nottinghamshire Fire and Rescue Service and East Midlands Ambulance Service.
There are weather reporting stations close to Nottingham – the former "Nottingham Weather Centre", at Watnall, about 6 miles (10 km) north-west of the city centre; and the University of Nottingham's agricultural campus at Sutton Bonington, about 10 miles (16 km) to the south-west of the city centre. The highest temperature recorded in Nottingham (Watnall) stands at 34.6 °C (94.3 °F), whilst at Sutton Bonington stands at 34.8 °C (94.6 °F) both recorded on the 3rd of August 1990, and the record high minimum temperature is 19.9 °C (67.8 °F) recorded in August 2004. On average, a temperature of 25 °C (77 °F) or above is recorded on 11.0 days per year at Watnall (1981–2010), and the warmest day of the year reaches an average of 29.4 °C (84.9 °F).
For the period 1981–2010 Nottingham (Watnall) recorded on average 42.9 days of air frost per year, and Sutton Bonington 47.1. The lowest recorded temperature in Nottingham (Watnall) is −13.3 °C (8.1 °F) recorded in January 1963 and January 1987. The record low maximum temperature is −6.3 °C (20.7 °F) recorded in January 1963. For the period of 1981-2010, the coldest temperature of the year reaches an average of −6.6 °C (20.1 °F) in Nottingham (Watnall).
The geographical centre of Nottingham is usually defined as the Old Market Square, the largest city square in the UK. The square is dominated by the Council House, which replaced The Nottingham Exchange Building, built in 1726. The Council House was built in the 1920s to display civic pride, ostentatiously using baroque columns and placing stone statues of two lions at the front to stand watch over the square. The Exchange Arcade, on the ground floor, is an upmarket shopping centre containing boutiques.
Tall office buildings line Maid Marian Way. The Georgian area around Oxford and Regent Streets is dominated by small professional firms. The Albert Hall faces the Gothic revival St Barnabas' Roman Catholic Cathedral by Pugin. Nottingham Castle and its grounds are located further south in the western third of the city. The central third descends from the University district in the north, past Nottingham Trent University's Gothic revival Arkwright Building. The University also owns many other buildings in this area. The Theatre Royal on Theatre Square, with its pillared façade, was built in 1865. King and Queen Streets are home to striking Victorian buildings designed by such architects as Alfred Waterhouse and Watson Fothergill.
To the south, is Broadmarsh Shopping Centre. The Canal-side further south of this is adjacent to Nottingham railway station and home to numerous redeveloped 19th-century industrial buildings, reused as bars and restaurants.
The eastern third of the city centre contains the Victoria Shopping Centre, built in the 1970s on the site of the demolished Victoria Railway Station. All that remains of the old station is the clock tower and the station hotel, now the Nottingham Hilton Hotel. The 250 feet-high Victoria Centre flats stand above the shopping centre and are the tallest buildings in the city. The eastern third contains Hockley Village. Hockley is where many of Nottingham's unique, independent shops are to be found. It is also home to two alternative cinemas.
- Lace Market: The Lace Market area just south of Hockley has streets with four to seven-story red brick warehouses, iron railings and red phone boxes.
Buildings have been converted into apartments, bars and restaurants. Adams Building, built by Thomas Chambers Hine for Thomas Adams (1817–1873), is currently used by New College Nottingham. St. Mary's Church, on High Pavement, is the largest medieval building still standing in Nottingham. The Georgian-built Shire Hall is home to the Galleries of Justice and was Nottingham's main court and prison building.
- Pubs: Ye Olde Trip To Jerusalem (the Trip), partially built into the cave system beneath Nottingham Castle, is a contender for the title of England's Oldest Pub, as it is supposed to have been established in 1189. The Bell Inn in the Old Market Square, and Ye Olde Salutation Inn (the Salutation) in Maid Marian Way have both disputed this claim. The Trip's current timber building probably dates back to the 17th or 18th century, but the caves are certainly older and may have been used to store beer and water for the castle during medieval times. There are also caves beneath the Salutation that date back to the medieval period, although they are no longer used as beer cellars. The Bell Inn is probably the oldest of the three pub buildings still standing, according to dendrochronology, and has medieval cellars that are still used to store beer.
Over 61,000 students attend the city's two universities, Nottingham Trent University and the University of Nottingham, both of which have several campuses in the city. In 2011/12, Nottingham Trent University had 27,930 students, and the University of Nottingham had 35,630. The University of Nottingham Medical School is part of the Queen's Medical Centre.
Three further education colleges are located in Nottingham. Bilborough College is solely a sixth form college. Central College was formed from the merger of South Nottingham College and Castle College. New College was formed from a merger of four smaller further education colleges. Nottingham also has dozens of sixth-form colleges and academies that provide education and training for adults aged over 16.
Nottingham also has a number of independent schools, with Nottingham High School – which was founded in 1513 – being the city's oldest educational establishment.
In 2010, Nottingham City Council announced that as part of their economic development strategy for the city, their target sectors would include low-carbon technologies, digital media, life sciences, financial and business services and retail and leisure.
Nottingham is home to the headquarters of several companies. One is Boots the Chemists (now Alliance Boots). Other large companies include Chinook Sciences, GM (cricket bats), Pedigree pet food company, American clothing VF Cooperation, Chinese-made automobiles Changan, the credit reference agency Experian, the energy company E.ON UK, the tobacco company Imperial Tobacco, the betting company Gala Group, the amusement and gambling-machine manufacturer Bell-Fruit-Games, the engineering company Siemens, the sportswear manufacturers Speedo, the high-street opticians Vision Express and Specsavers, the games and publishing company Games Workshop, the PC software developer Serif Europe (publisher of PagePlus and other titles), the Web hosting provider Heart Internet, the American credit card company Capital One, and the national law firm Browne Jacobson. Nottingham is also the home of the Nottingham Building Society (set up in 1849), the offices of HM Revenue and Customs, the Driving Standards Agency, BBC East Midlands offices, and formerly, the Government Office for the East Midlands.
Nottingham was made one of the UK's six science cities in 2005 by the then chancellor of the Exchequer (later prime minister), Gordon Brown. Among the science based industries within the city is BioCity. Founded as a joint venture between Nottingham Trent University and the University of Nottingham, it is the UK's biggest bioscience innovation and incubation centre, housing around 80 science-based companies.
Until recently cycle manufacturing was a major industry, the city being the birthplace of Raleigh Cycles in 1886, later joined by Sturmey-Archer, the developer of three-speed hub gears. However, Raleigh's factory on Triumph Road, famous as the location for the filming of Saturday Night and Sunday Morning, was demolished in Summer 2003 to make way for the University of Nottingham's expansion of its Jubilee Campus. The schools and aerial photographers, H Tempest Ltd were Nottingham-based for many years, until relocating to St. Ives (Cornwall) around 1960.
Nottingham is also host to the UK's first and only local authority-owned and not-for-profit energy company; Robin Hood Energy.
In 2015, Nottingham was also ranked as being in the top 10 UK cities for job growth (2004–13), in the public and private sectors.
- Shopping: In 2014, Nottingham came seventh in CACI's Retail Footprint rankings of retail expenditure in the UK, behind the West End of London, Glasgow, Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool. This is a slip of four places since 2010, primarily due to major developments in other parts of the UK and a relative lack of investment in Nottingham. However, this is likely to change as the owners of the two main shopping centres, Intu, have plans to upgrade and extend them both.
There are two main shopping centres in Nottingham: the Victoria Centre and the Broadmarsh Centre. The Victoria Centre was established on the site of the former Nottingham Victoria railway station, and was the first to be built in the city, with parking for up to 2,400 cars on several levels, and a bus station.
Nottingham City Council, owners of the Broadmarsh Centre, have been attempting to redevelop it for "almost two decades". Work on redeveloping Broadmarsh, at a cost of £400 million (creating 400 stores, 136,000 m2 of shopping space), was due to start in 2008.
However, the downturn in the economy meant that redevelopment was delayed throughout from 2008 to 2010. In the light of the Victoria Centre's redevelopment plans, Westfield announced in 2011 that it was once again planning a £500 million development of Broadmarsh, which would start in 2012. This, however, did not take place either.
Broadmarsh was finally sold to Capital Shopping Centres, the owners of the Victoria Centre. The purchase prompted an investigation by the Office of Fair Trading and the Competition Commission, who were concerned that the company's monopoly over the city's shopping centres could have a negative impact on competition.
CSC subsequently rebranded itself and the centres use the "Intu" name. Although the new owners wished to start the planned development of the Victoria Centre, Nottingham City Council insisted that Broadmarsh must have priority, with the Council offering £50 million towards its redevelopment. The deputy leader of Nottingham City Council said the Council would withhold planning permission for the development of the Victoria Centre until they saw "bulldozers going into the Broadmarsh Centre."
Smaller shopping centres in the city are The Exchange Arcade, the Flying Horse Walk and newer developments in Trinity Square and The Pod. The Bridlesmith Gate area has numerous designer shops, and is the home of the original Paul Smith boutique. There are various side streets and alleys that hide some interesting and often overlooked buildings and shops – such as Poultry Walk, West End Arcade and Hurts Yard. These are home to many specialist shops, as is Derby Road, near the Roman Catholic Cathedral and once the antiques area.
Nottingham has a number of department stores including the House of Fraser, John Lewis, and Debenhams.
- Enterprise zone: In March 2011 the government announced the creation of Nottingham Enterprise Zone, an enterprise zone sited on part of the Boots Estate. In March 2012 Nottingham Science Park, Beeston Business Park and Nottingham Medipark were added to the zone. In December 2014 the government announced that the zone would be expanded again, to include Infinity Park Derby, a planned business park for aerospace, rail and automotive technology adjacent to the Rolls-Royce site in Sinfin, Derby.
- Creative Quarter: The Creative Quarter is a project started by Nottingham City Council as part of the Nottingham City Deal. Centred on the east of the city (including the Lace Market, Hockley, Broadmarsh East, the Island site and BioCity), the project aims at creating growth and jobs. In July 2012, the government contributed £25 million towards a £45 million venture capital fund, mainly targeted at the Creative Quarter.
- Theatres: Nottingham has two large-capacity theatres, the Nottingham Playhouse and the Theatre Royal, which together with the neighbouring Royal Concert Hall forms the Royal Centre. The city also contains smaller theatre venues such as the Nottingham Arts Theatre, the Lace Market Theatre and New Theatre.
- Galleries and museums: The city contains several notable museums and art galleries including:
- The Galleries of Justice: Museum of Law Trust based at the Shire Hall in the Lace Market
- Green's Windmill and Science Centre: A unique working windmill in the heart of the city that was home to the 19th-century mathematical physicist and miller, George Green.
- Nottingham Castle Museum: Home to the city's fine and decorative art collections, along with the Story of Nottingham galleries, and the Sherwood Foresters
- Regimental Museum.
- Nottingham Contemporary: Contemporary art gallery, which opened in 2009.
- Nottingham Industrial Museum: In Wollaton Park.
- Nottingham Natural History Museum: Based at Wollaton Hall.
- Cinemas: There is a Cineworld and a Showcase in the city. Independent cinemas include the Broadway Cinema, Savoy Cinema, (a four-screen Art Deco cinema), as well an Arthouse cinema in Hockley.
- Music and entertainment: Nottingham has several large music and entertainment venues including the Royal Concert Hall, Rock City and the Nottingham Arena
The 2,500-capacity Nottingham Royal Concert Hall and 10,000-capacity Nottingham Arena attract popular music and comedy artistes. Nottingham also has a selection of smaller venues, including the 800-capacity Albert Hall, Ye Olde Salutation Inn, Seven (formerly Junktion 7) and The Old Angel. Nottingham contains the rock music venue Rock City. Nottingham's City Ground played host to rock band R.E.M. in 2005, the first time a concert had been staged at the football stadium. Bottles were thrown hitting peoples' heads in the crowd.
The city has an active classical music scene, with long-established ensembles such as the city's Symphony Orchestra, Philharmonic Orchestra, Nottingham Harmonic Society, Bach Choir, Early Music Group Musica Donum Dei and the Symphonic Wind Orchestra giving regular performances in the city.
The Sumac Centre, based in Forest Fields, has for many years supported local upcoming musicians, artists and film makers, and a variety of campaign groups. There are a large number of live music venues promoting rock and metal music throughout the city, including The Central, The Old Angel, The Maze, The Chameleon, The Corner and Ye Olde Salutation Inn. Sixties Blues-rock band Ten Years After formed in Nottingham, as did the 70s pop act Paper Lace. Since the turn of the decade the city has produced a number of artists to gain media attention, including; Jake Bugg, London Grammar, Indiana, Sleaford Mods, Natalie Duncan, Dog Is Dead, Saint Raymond, Rue Royale and Amber Run.
Wollaton Park in Nottingham hosts an annual family-friendly music event called Splendour. In 2009 it was headlined by Madness and The Pogues. The following year it was headlined by The Pet Shop Boys and featured, among others, Calvin Harris, Noisettes, Athlete and OK Go. In 2011 it featured headline acts Scissor Sisters, Blondie, Eliza Doolittle and Feeder. In 2012, performers included Dizzee Rascal, Razorlight, Katy B, and Hard-Fi.
Nottingham is known for hip hop. Rofl Audio Recording Studios opened in 2013.
- Arts and crafts: The Hockley Arts Market runs alongside Sneinton Market.
- Food: There are several hundred restaurants in Nottingham, with there being several AA rosette winning restaurants in 2010. Iberico World Tapas, situation in the city centre, was awarded a Bib Gourmand in the 2013 Michelin Guide.
- Tourism: In 2010, the city was named as one of the "Top 10 Cities to Visit in 2010" by DK Travel. In 2013 it was estimated the city received 247,000 overseas visitors.
There is a Robin Hood Pageant in Nottingham in October. The city is home to the Nottingham Robin Hood Society, founded in 1972 by Jim Lees and Steve and Ewa Theresa West.
In February 2008, a Ferris wheel was put up in the Old Market Square and was an attraction of Nottingham City Council's "Light Night" on 8 February. The wheel returned to Nottingham in February 2009 to mark another night of lights, activities, illuminations and entertainment. Initially marketed as the Nottingham Eye, it was later redubbed as the Nottingham Wheel, to avoid any association with the London Eye. It was seen again in 2010 and 2015.
- People: Many local businesses and organisations use the worldwide fame of Robin Hood to represent or promote their brands. Many residents converse in the East Midlands dialect. The friendly term of greeting "Eh-oop, me Duck" is a humorous example of the local dialect, but with an unclear origin.
- Miscellaneous: Nottingham is home to the GameCity annual videogame festival, which attracts leading industry speakers from around the world. In addition, in 2015 the National Videogame Arcade was opened in the Hockley area of the city; being "the UK's first cultural centre for videogames".
In 2013, Nottingham was named the most haunted city in England, reflecting its historical past.
Nottingham has hosted an annual Asian Mela in every summer since about 1989. Nottingham also hosts a parade on St Patrick's Day, Fireworks at the Chinese New Year, Holi in the Park celebrating Hinduism, a West Indian-style Carnival, and several Sikh events.
Nottingham has featured in a number of fictional works.
- Sport: Nottingham is home to two professional football clubs: Notts County and Nottingham Forest. Their two football grounds, on opposite sides of the River Trent, are noted for geographically being the closest in English league football. Notts County, formed in 1862, is the oldest professional football club in the world.
Nottingham Forest, who currently play in the Football League Championship, were English league champions in 1978 and won the European Cup twice over the next two seasons under the management of Brian Clough, who was the club's manager from January 1975 to May 1993, leading them to four Football League Cup triumphs in that time. They have played at the City Ground, on the south bank of the River Trent, since 1898.
Nottingham Forest joined the Football League in 1892, four years after its inception when it merged with the rival Football Alliance, and 100 years later, they were among the FA Premier League's founder members in 1992 – though they have not played top division football since May 1999. The City Ground played host to group stage games in the 1996 European Football Championships.
Nottingham won the title of 2015 City of Football after five months of campaigning, which resulted in £1.6m in funding for local football ventures and to encourage more people to play the sport. Nottingham was selected to be a host city for the England 2018 FIFA World Cup bid. It was proposed that if the bid were successful, the city would have received a new Nottingham Forest Stadium.
Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club play at Trent Bridge – an international cricket venue. The club were 2010 Cricket County Champions. Trent Bridge cricket ground is a host of Test Cricket, and was one of the venues for the 2009 ICC World Twenty20.
The Rugby team, Nottingham R.F.C., have played their home games at League One, Notts County's Meadow Lane stadium since 2006. In January 2015 they will play home matches at their training base, Lady Bay Sports Ground. Currently in the RFU Championship, if Nottingham are promoted to the Rugby Premiership they will return to Meadow Lane for home matches. Nottingham Outlaws are an amateur Rugby League club who play in the Rugby League Conference National Division.
The city was the birthplace and training location for ice dancers Torvill and Dean, who won Gold at the 1984 Sarajevo Olympics. The National Ice Centre, opened by Jane Torvill, is a national centre for ice sports. The square in-front of the centre is named "Bolero Square" after Torvill and Dean's perfect 6.0 performance. Nottingham is home to the Nottingham Panthers ice hockey team.
Other sporting events in the city include the annual tennis Aegon Trophy (which is staged at the City of Nottingham Tennis Centre), the Robin Hood Marathon, Milk Race, the Great Nottinghamshire Bike Ride and the Outlaw Triathlon. Nottingham also has three Roller derby teams: Nottingham Roller Girls, the Hellfire Harlots (women's teams).
The traditional requirement of city status is a (Church of England) cathedral. Nottingham, however, does not have one, having only been designated a city in 1897, in celebration of Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee. From around AD 1100 Nottingham was part of the Diocese of Lichfield, controlled as an archdeaconry from Lichfield Cathedral in Staffordshire. However, in 1837 the archdeaconry was placed under the control of the Diocese of Lincoln. In 1884 it became part of the newly created Diocese of Southwell, which it, and the city, are still part of today. The bishop is based at Southwell Minster, 14 miles (23 km) north-east of the city. In 2005 the diocese was renamed the Diocese of Southwell and Nottingham.
Despite not having a cathedral, Nottingham has three notable historic Anglican parish churches, all of which date back to the Middle Ages. St. Mary the Virgin, in the Lace Market, is the oldest and largest. The church dates from the eighth or ninth centuries, but the present building is at least the third on the site, dating primarily from 1377 to 1485. St. Mary's is considered the mother church of the city and civic services are held here, including the welcome to the new Lord Mayor of Nottingham each year. It is a member of the Greater Churches Group. St. Peter's in the heart of the city is the oldest building in continuous use in Nottingham, with traces of building starting in 1180. St. Nicholas' was rebuilt after destruction in the Civil War.
A variety of chapels and meeting rooms are in the town. Many of these grand buildings have been demolished, including Halifax Place Wesleyan Chapel, but some have been re-used, notably High Pavement Chapel which is now a public house. The national headquarters of the Congregational Federation is in Nottingham.
Nottingham is one of 18 British cities that do not have an Anglican cathedral. It is, however, home to the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Barnabas, which was designed by Augustus Pugin and consecrated in 1844. It is the cathedral church for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Nottingham.
Today there are places of worship for all major religions, including Christianity, Islam with 32 Mosques in Nottingham, Hinduism, Sikhism, Taoism and Judaism. The Nottingham Inter-faith Council works to make connections between faith groups and show the wider public the importance of spiritual aspects of life and the contribution faith groups make to the community.
Nottingham has 30,000 Muslims, 15,000 Sikhs, 8,000 Hindus and 2,000 Jews.
The city of Nottingham has a population at 312,900 with the Greater Nottingham population at 729,977 and the Metro population at 1,543,000. The city of Nottingham has a density of 4,073/km2.
65.4% are White British, 6.1% are European/North American, 13.1% Asian, 4.3% African, 1.6% Middle Eastern, 1.1% South/Central American and 8.2% of West Indian origins. Nottingham is a very multi-cultural city with people from 93 different countries and 101 spoken languages with cuisines, religious institutions/places of worship, businesses and supermarkets all over Nottingham especially situated in Hyson Green, Forest Fields, Carrington, Radford, Lenton, Meadows, Dunkirk, Rylands, St Ann's, Sneinton, Aspley, Broxtowe, City, Basford, Bakersfield, Carlton and Arnold.
- Television Main articles: BBC East Midlands and Carlton Studios, Nottingham
The BBC has its East Midlands headquarters in Nottingham on London Road. BBC East Midlands Today is broadcast from the city every weeknight at 18:30.
From 1983-2005 Central Television (the ITV region for the East Midlands) had a studio complex on Lenton Lane, producing programmes for various networks and broadcasting regional news. Although a petition was set up to try to stop it, the TV studios were shut down in early 2005 with local news production transferred to Birmingham.
The city was recently granted permission by OFCOM to set up its own local television station. After a tender process, Confetti College was awarded the license. The station was declared open by Prince Harry in April 2013 and Notts TV began broadcast in spring 2014.
- Radio: In addition to the national commercial and BBC radio stations, the Nottingham area is served by four licensed commercial radio stations (though all broadcast to a wider area than the city), three community radio stations, one student station broadcasting on a Low powered AM Restricted Service Licence and a BBC local radio station.
Radio stations include: BBC Radio Nottingham; Gold; Gem 106; Capital East Midlands
- Student Radio: The city's two universities both broadcast their own student radio stations. Nottingham Trent University's FlyFM is based at the university's city campus and is broadcast online. Nottingham University's University Radio Nottingham is broadcast around the main and Sutton Bonnington campuses on medium wave (AM), as well as over the internet. New College Nottingham also broadcast an online radio station, NCN RADIO.
- Community radio: There are also three community radio stations serving the city. Faza FM on 97.1FM, has been broadcasting since 2002 and is aimed at Asian women and their families. Dawn FM on 107.6FM used to share its broadcast hours with Faza, but in 2006 became a separate service in its own right – broadcasting news, current affairs and music of relevance to the Asian (specifically Islamic) community within the city. Kemet Radio on 97.5, launched in 2007 and broadcasts urban music while also serving the Afro-Caribbean community.
- Newspapers and magazines: Nottingham's main local newspaper, the Nottingham Post, is owned by Northcliffe Media and is published daily from Monday to Saturday each week. There are also a number of other publications which focus on individual areas within the city, for instance the Hucknall and Bulwell Dispatch.
A local culture and listings magazine called LeftLion is available free from many sites around the city, whilst a complimentary, bi-monthly glossy magazine is also available from a number of outlets across the city called Life&Style Magazine. This consists of features typically focused on the area's interest in fashion, entertainment and politics. Arrow magazine features a range of local news, events and information on Nottingham City Council services.
Nottingham Trent University's Student Union produces the regular Platform Magazine, while Impact Magazine is a monthly magazine written for, and by, students at the University of Nottingham.
Student tabloid, The Tab also publishes online content and has teams at both universities.
- Film: Nottingham has been used as a location in many locally, nationally, and internationally produced films. Movies that have been filmed (partly or entirely) in Nottingham.
Robin Hood is a heroic outlaw in English folklore who, according to legend, was a highly skilled archer and swordsman. Traditionally depicted as being dressed in Lincoln green, he is often portrayed as "robbing from the rich and giving to the poor" alongside his band of Merry Men. Robin Hood became a popular folk figure in the late-medieval period, and continues to be widely represented in literature, films and television.
- Historicity: The historicity of Robin Hood has been debated for centuries. Modern academic opinion maintains that the legend is based in part on a historical person, although there is considerable scholarly debate as to his actual identity. A difficulty with any such historical research is that "Robert" was in medieval England a very common given name, and "Robin" (or Robyn), was its very common diminutive, especially in the 13th century. The surname "Hood" (or Hude or Hode etc.) was also fairly common because it referred either to a Hooder, who was a maker of hoods; or alternatively to somebody who wore a hood as a head-covering. Unsurprisingly, therefore, reference is made to a number of people called "Robert Hood" or "Robin Hood" in medieval records. Some of these individuals are even known to have fallen afoul of the law.
- Sherwood Forest: The early ballads link Robin Hood to identifiable real places. In popular culture, Robin Hood and his band of "merry men" are portrayed as living in Sherwood Forest, in Nottinghamshire. Notably, the Lincoln Cathedral Manuscript, which is the first officially recorded Robin Hood song (dating from approximately 1420), makes an explicit reference to the outlaw that states that "Robyn hode in scherewode stod." In a similar fashion, a monk of Witham Priory (1460) suggested that the archer had 'infested shirwode'. His chronicle entry reads:
'Around this time, according to popular opinion, a certain outlaw named Robin Hood, with his accomplices, infested Sherwood and other law-abiding areas of England with continuous robberies'.
Nobody knows exactly what the monk's source was, but the fact that he used the term 'according to popular opinion' has led historians to conclude that his source may have been nothing more than simple word of mouth.