jueves, 14 de julio de 2016

Cantina Pieropan (Soave - Veneto - Italia)



CANTINA PIEROPAN  (SOAVE - VENETO - ITALIA)


Leonildo Pieropan fue el primero en vinificar un Soave DOC monocru, el Calvario. Otro procede de la viña de La Rocca. La finca también produce el recioto di Soave Le Colombare y un vino de tavola blanco elaborado con riesling italico.


- Nombre: Societa Agricola Pieropan di Leonido Pieropan & C. S.S.
- Dirección: Via Camuzzoni, 3. 37038 Soave (Vr), Italy
- Telefono: +39 045 6190171
- Fax: +39 045 6190040
- Web: www.pieropan.it
- E-mail: info@pieropan.it


- Véneto: Los Alpes cubren cerca de un tercio del Véneto y sus estribaciones descienden hasta los arrozales de la llanura central y las orillas del lago de Carda, al oeste. En cuanto a la geografía. el Véneto es la región vitícola italiana más variada y sus viñedos ofrecen la posibilidad de elaborar numerosos estilos de vino.


Sus zonas DOC se reparten en tres grandes sectores: Las orillas del lago de Garda y los alrededores de Verana: Las colinas del Véneto central; y el Véneto oriental, en los alrededores de Venecia y de Treviso.


En el primer sector, los vinos proceden generalmente de variedades autóctonas. Más al este (con algunas excepciones), los vinos son de vidueños mayoncanamente internacionaes.


A menos de media hora de coche, ai este de Verona, se encuentran los viñedos de Soave DOC (blanco). Al noroeste de la ciudad, se extiende la Valpolícella DOC y un poco más al oeste, a orillas del lago de Carda, la Bardolino DOC. Todas de tintos. Teniendo tres de las denominaciones italianas más conocidas en el mundo, se entiende mejor por qué la provincia de Verana ocupa un lugar preponderante en el Véneto.


- Soave: Los mejores Soave DOC proceden siempre de la zona Classico. en el centro de la denominación, formada por algunas colinas alrededor de los municipios de Monte forte d’Al pone y de Soave. Las viñas se encuentran a cerca de 250 m de alctud. sobre laderas poco indinadas con un rico suelo de origen volcánico. Unos rendimientos bastante reducidos y un microdima favorable dan al vino aromas concentrados de frutos maduros.


La variedad principal del Véneto es la garganega (blanca). Seco y sabroso, el soave classico presenta una capa pajiza brillante, una acidez agradable y aromas afrutados delicdos, con una nota de almendra tostada. El buqué evoca flores de cerezo y de saúco.


El soave genérico, producido en las llanuras, es netamente inferior. Algunos productores vinifican recioto di Soave, un vino dulce hecho de uvas semipasincadas, con textura y gusto más densos, y también más alcohólico.


- Valpolicella: La Valpolicella DOC agrupa diversos estilos de vinos tintos: Valpolicella genérico, valpolicella clásico, valpolicella ripasso, recioto della Valpolicella y valpolicella amarone.


El valpolicella de base es un vino ligero y sabroso, de color rubí, de un seductor aroma de uva fresca, elaborado para beberse joven. Como el soave, los vinos de la zona Classico tienen a menudo una concentración aromática.


Muchos de los productores de valpolicella recurren además al método del ripasso, que consiste en trasegar el vino después de la fermentación para ponerlo sobre las lías del recioto del año antenor. Los vinos de ripasso son carnosos y concentrados, con una capa cereza oscura, un buqué intenso, un sabor de guinda y cierta longevidad. El término ripasso no está reconocido por el sistema oficial de etiquetaje y hay que conocer los métodos del productor para identificar esos vinos.


El recioto de la Valpolicella y el amarone proceden de uvas seleccionadas, secadas al aire en graneros entre la vendimia y el mes de enero. Dotado de aromas concentrados y de una textura aterciopelada, de alto nivel de alcohol, el recioto de la Valpolicella, oscuro y dulce, se compara a menudo con el oporto y se sirve del mismo modo. El amarone es un vino seco y generoso, magníficamente opulento.


PIEROPAN VIGNAIILI DAL 1880

- History: The Pieropan business was founded in 1880 in the heart of the medieval village of Soave, in the historic Palazzo Pullici. Four generations marked the history of the company, each with their own contributions which varied according to the times, knowledge and entrepreneurial attitude.


- Location: The Calvarino Vineyard is located in the heart of the traditional Soave area and represents the company's old family land since 1901. It consists of a series of terraces that let the grapes get better exposure to light and allow ideal ripening. The soil is rich with volcanic basalts, giving the wine savoury and elegant mineral notes.


- Cantina: The wine cellars of the Pieropan family are the result of a successful blend of tradition and modernity. The historic winery in Soave retains a unique atmosphere of past times. Here all stages of processing take place, from the crushing of the grapes, winemaking and bottling.


The vineyard ‘La Rocca’ is situated on the Monte Rocchetta hill, just below the mediaeval castle built by the Scaligeri family in the town of Soave. The microclimate in this vineyard produces wines with a unique perfume and distinctive taste. The grapes are picked when very ripe, often as late as the end of October, giving tremendous complexity and aromatic qualities to the wine, making it a wine of great breeding.The wine was first made under this label in 1978.


- Geographical location: Hillside vineyard in the Soave Classico zone.
- Vineyard characteristics: Chalky, clay soils, situated at 200-300m above sea level, facing south west.
- Training: Spur pruned cordon trained with 5000 vines per hectare.
- Defence method: Holistic, low environmental impact approach to pest control.
- Buds per vine: 8 buds per vine. Average age of vines: 10-50 years old.
- Yields per hectare: 60 hl (2 kg per vine).
- Harvesting: Hand picked at the end of October, often in two harvests to select the ripest grapes.
- Vinification techniques: The grapes are destemed and crushed then it is done a short maceration with skin contact in 2500 litre barrels
- Ageing: At the end of fermentation, the wine is racked into barrels of between 2000 and 500 litres capacity where it ages for around a year. During this period, the wine remains on the fine lees where is acquires complexity and a rich bouquet. It is held in bottle for some time before release.
- Organoleptic properties: Color: Brilliant and intense yellow whit golden hints; Perfume:characterful wine, reminiscent of exotic fruit and nuts on the nose; Tasting notes: Soft and persistent on the palate, with hints of spice, lenght and elegance; Total acidity: 5‰ – 5.5 ‰; Alcoholic content:13°.
- Serving suggestions: Makes an excellent partner to complex dishes, even with strong flavours particularly risottos such as porcini, or celery, squash and almond, salt cod and other fish including salmon, scallops and crab. Serve at 12-14°C.


MEDIEVAL VILLAGE OF SOAVE

- Soave: Is a small comune of the Veneto region in the Province of Verona, northern Italy, with a population of roughly 6,800 people.


- Geography: Soave is located approximately 23 kilometres (14 miles) east of Verona and is reachable by use of the A4 motorway exit Soave-San Bonifacio.


- History: Soave was a Roman center on the via Postumia that connected Aquileia to Genoa. There are different names about the origin of current name: According to one theory, it could derive from the Suebi (sometimes called Soavi in medieval Italian).


The castle was cited for the first time in occasion of the Magyar invasions (934). In the 13th century it was a possession of the Counts Bonifacio, which installed a capitano here. The walls still visible today, were built in 1379 by Cansignorio of the Scaliger family. Their rule was followed by those of the Visconti from Milan and the Carraresi from Padua; the latter lost Soave in 1405 to the Republic of Venice. In 1439 Visconti troops under Niccolò Piccinino captured it back, but Venice regained it soon. During the War of the League of Cambrai (1508), the city was fired and 366 Soavesi killed, but again in 1515 it was reacquired by Venice, which later sold the castle to the Gritti noble family.


In 1797-1805 the city was under French rule. In 1809 there were small fights between French and Austrian troops in the vicinity. Later Soave was included in the kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, and in 1866 became part of Italy.


- Castle: The Castle of Soave is a typical medieval military edifice, commanding the neighbourhood of the city from the Tenda Hill. It comprises a mastio (donjon) and three lines of walls forming three courts of different size. The outer line, with a gate and a draw bridge, is the most recent, built by the Venetians in the 15th century. It houses the remains of a small church from the 10th century.


The second and larger court, the first of the original castle, is called della Madonna for a fresco portraying St. Mary (1321). Another fresco is visible after the door leading to the inner court, and portrays a Scaliger soldier. The mastio is the most impressive feature of the castle. Bones found within showed it was used also as prison and place of torture. The House called del Capitano (the Scaliger commander) houses Roman coins, weapons parts, medals and other ancient remains found during the most recent restoration. Adjacent is a bedroom with a 13th-century fresco with St. Mary and Madeleine and a dining room with medieval kitchenware. Another room houses the portraits of the most famous Scaliger figures: Mastino I, Cangrande, Cansignorio and Taddea da Carrara, wife of Mastino II; the portrait of Dante Alighieri testify an alleged sojourn of the poet in the castle.


VENETO WINE AND VINEYARDS

Veneto is a wine region in north-eastern Italy, one of a group of three highly productive Italian regions known collectively as the Tre Venezie (after the Venetian Republic), which is a large area comprised today of the Italian regions of Friuli Venezia-Giulia, Alto Adige and Trentino, and Veneto. The Veneto is the biggest Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) producer of the three. Although the Tre Venezie collectively produce more red wine than white, the Veneto region produces more whites under DOC and is home to the Soave and Prosecco wines.


The region is protected from the harsh northern European climate by the Alps, the foothills of which form the Veneto's northern extremes. These cooler climes are well-suited to white varieties like Garganega (the main grape for Soave wines), while the warmer Adriatic coastal plains, river valleys, and Garda Lake zone are the places where the renowned Valpolicella, Amarone and Bardolino DOC reds are produced.


In Veneto, two different wine areas are clearly distinguishable: An Eastern part, close to the Venice Lagoon between the hills of Treviso, the plain of Piave river and Adriatic coast, where it is typical to produce the famous Prosecco (Glera), and other varieties are grown like Merlot, Carmenere, Verduzzo, Raboso Piave, Refosco, Tocai, Verdiso, Marzemino; and the Western part, close to Garda Lake and the city of Verona, famous for the wines based on the varieties Corvina, Rondinella, Garganega, Trebbiano of Soave, and Oseleta.


In the central part of the Veneto the winemaking transitions between the varieties and styles of the Eastern and Western parts. In that area you can find the Colli Euganei, the hills close to Padua, that is a special Mediterranean microclimatic zone; it is even famous for the Moscato fior d'arancio production, a sparkling dessert wine.


Another area in the North-center of Veneto, close to Asiago, is Breganze, where the dessert wine Torcolato is produced with the Vespaiolo grape.


The traditional vine training system of the eastern part is the Sylvoz system, today replaced by the Guyot system, while in the western part there is more traditionally the Pergola system. Veneto's growers use modern growing methods and systems in the vineyard and for wine making. While most of the 'classic' wines from this area are based on native grape varieties, like Glera (formerly known as Prosecco) and Verduzzo, high demand for Veneto wines in the European and US markets has galvanized the region's producers into experimentation with Cabernets, Chardonnay and Pinot varieties, among others. One of Italy's leading wine schools, Conegliano, is based here and the nation's most important wine fair, Vinitaly, takes place each spring in Verona.


Veneto is the 8th largest region of Italy in land mass, and a population of 4,371,000 ranks it 6th in that regard. It has over 90,000 hectares (220,000 acres) of vineyards, of which 35,400 are acclaimed DOC. Annual production totals 8,500,000 hectolitres, 1,700,000 or 21% of which is DOC, making it the biggest DOC producer in Italy. White wine accounts for 55% of the DOC production in Veneto.


VENETO WINES

Veneto, historically and currently is a very important wine region in north east Italy. It stretches westward to lake Garda and northward to the Alps and the Austrian border from the terra firma behind the lagoons and city of Venice, an important power in the wine trade of the Middle Ages whose legacy has shaped some wines in Veneto and elsewhere. Since the mid 1990s, Veneto has overtaken Puglia and Sicilia to become Italy’s largest wine-producing region with production of more than 9.2 million hl/230 million gal in 2004. As production in the south of Italy has fallen, that in Veneto has increased. A large part of this increase is due to success of Pinot Grigio, though the entrepreneurial spirit of the producers and the cooperatives has also played a role.


In theory, a significant proportion of Veneto wine is of good quality, with doc wine representing well over a quarter of the total. The reality is somewhat different. This proportion has been artificially inflated both by drastic enlargements of the DOC zones (to plains which were cereal-growing areas prior to the Second World War in the case of Valpolicella and Soave) and/or by sanctioning extremely generous  yields (in the case of Valpolicella, Soave, Bardolino, and Prosecco). The resulting wines, though nominally of DOC level, are too frequently characterless.


Good bottles of Bardolino, Valpolicella, and Soave are not difficult to find, however, and the Corvina vine variety which forms the basis of Valpolicella, and Garganega, the base of Soave, are capable of making interesting wines if grown in die proper area: The hills on die 45 degrees 30 minutes of latitude which run eastward from lake Garda, to the north of the fertile Adige river plain.


Other hillside zones of real potential are scattered about the region and include the Colli Berici to the south and reganze to the north of Vicenza, the Colli Euganei to the south west of Padua, the hillside part of the Piave DOC zone. Native varieties such as Tocai, Garganega, and Verduzzo, are cultivated in these zones, as are imports such as Merlot and Cabernet (brought to the area in che wake of the Napoleonic invasion in the early part of the 19th century).


The Garganega based Bianco di Custoza and Gambellara, two country cousins of Soave, the lightly sparkling Prosecco of Conegliano, and the Moscato of the Colli Euganei (no rival to Moscato D’asti but with the true, grapey character) round out the regional picture, a picture characterized by large quantities of pleasant and easy drinking wines which seem to suffer from a lack of ambition and competitive spirit. Veneto’s centre of Academe is the experimental vici cui rural insti cute at Conegliano.


SOAVE WINE AND VINEYARDS

Soave (pronounced So-Ah-Ve) is a dry white Italian wine from the Veneto region in northeast Italy, principally around the city of Verona. Within the Soave region are both a Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) zone and a Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) designation known as Soave Superiore with both zones being further sub-divided into a general and classico designation for the wines produced in the heartland of the Soave region around the sloping vineyards of Verona.


Throughout the Soave production zone Garganega is the principal grape variety though Trebbiano di Soave and Chardonnay are permitted in varying percentages. While most Soave is dry, still wine within the DOC zone a sparkling spumante style is permitted as is the passito Recioto style, that in 1998 was granted its own Recioto di Soave DOCG designation for grapes grown in the hilly region.


- History: Soave saw a peak of popularity in United States during the mid-20th-century Italian wine boom that followed the end of World War II. Driven by the marketing efforts of large producers like Bolla, Soave even surpassed Chianti in the 1970s as the largest-selling Italian DOC wine in the US. By the end of the 20th century, Soave's share of US sales were eventually eclipsed by Pinot grigio and an influx of new wines from southern Italy.


The Soave DOC was created in 1968 with the boundaries revised and expanded periodically over the next few decades. As a point of introduction, it should be said that Soave and Chianti were the first zones in Italy (in 1931) to be recognized by Royal Decree as having the potential for producing fine wines. This document delimited the borders of the production zones which, in the case of Soave, coincide with those fixed under the current production regulations for Soave Classico. Situated in the eastern part of the Province of Vicenza, in the foothills of the Lessini Mountains, the Soave zone is a not particularly large wine region which, however, produces very significant quantities of wine, in virtue of the fact that the area under vine is one of the most specialized and densely planted in Europe. In this area, there exists a traditional and indissoluble link between viticulture and terroir. The area of specialized vineyards has remained practically unchanged compared to 100 years ago and indeed there does not seem to be any valid reason why it should increase.


In 2001, a separate Soave Superiore DOCG was created for the 2002 vintage that included revised boundaries that covered some areas of the original classico zone and excluded others for reasons that wine expert Oz Clarke described as unclear and "Byzantine". The revised boundaries and additional DOCG requirements that dealt with vine training and other viticultural practices promoted sharp criticism from Soave growers, and beginning as early as 2003 several voluntarily withdrew themselves from the DOC/G and produced wines under IGT designations.


- Wine region: The Soave production zone is situated in the eastern part of the hills in the province of Verona (north of the Serenissima highway, between the 18th and 25th kilometres of the Verona-Venezia road). The zone includes part or all of the lands belonging to the municipalities of Soave, Monteforte d'Alpone, San Martino Buon Albergo, Lavagno, Mezzane, Caldiero, Colognola, Illasi, Cazzano, Roncà, Montecchia and San Giovanni Ilarione.


The climate of the Soave region is influenced by the mists that flow from the Po Valley in the autumn and can bring the viticultural hazards of mold and other grape diseases. The Garganega grape, that is the primary component of Soave, is a late-ripening variety with a thick skin that can withstand the mist better than some of the thinner skin varieties like Trebbiano Toscano.


- Classico: The classico zone was first delineated by Veneto authorities in 1927 and originally encompassed 2,720 acres (1,100 ha) of hillside vineyards within the Soave zone. Today, the use of the specification "Classico" with the designation "Soave" is reserved for the product made from grapes harvested from the hillside vineyards around the municipalities of Soave and Monteforte d'Alpone in the original and oldest classic "zone" of Verona.


The vineyard soils of this region are considerably less fertile than the alluvial soils in the plains. In the western part of the classico zone near the commune of Soave the soils contain a high percentage of limestone which retain the warmth of the afternoon sun and helps produce fuller, more fruit-forward wines. In the eastern vineyards near Monteforte d'Alpone, the soils are made of decomposed volcanic rock that tends to produce what wine expert Jancis Robinson calls "steelier" wines.


- DOC/G requirements: Only white wine is produced in the Soave region with a minimum of 70% of the wine coming from the Garganega grape. For Soave DOC wine, up to 30% of the blend can come from Trebbiano di Soave which is also known as Verdicchio and Nestrano. This grape is different from the Trebbiano Toscano variety that is grown in the Tuscany region of Italy and is also known as the Ugni blanc grape used in Cognac production. Trebbiano Toscano is permitted in Soave but can comprise no more than 15% of the blend. All the grapes used for the DOC wine must be harvested to a yield no greater than 14 tonnes/hectare with the finished wine fermented to a minimum alcohol level of at least 10.5%.


In the Soave Superiore DOCG, Garganega must also account for a minimum of 70% of the wine but Pinot bianco, Chardonnay and Trebbiano di Soave are allowed to fill up to 30% of the remaining blend with Trebbiano Toscano and other local white grape varieties (such as Friulano, Cortese, Riesling Italico, Vespaiolo and Serprina) permitted up to 5% collectively. Grapes are harvested to a more restricted maximum yield of 10 tonnes/ha while the finished DOCG wines must reach a minimum alcohol level of 11.5%.


While most Soave Superiore DOCG is produced from vineyards within the classico zone, the boundaries for the DOCG also extend to some of the hillside vineyards that are outside the classico zone. These wines are labeled as Soave Colli Scaligeri Superiore DOCG a name referencing the hills around Verona that used to belong to the noble Scaligeri family that were Lords of Verona for many years.


Additionally, there are also new regulations for planting under the DOCG system with new vineyards needing to be trained using Espalier systems with at least 4000 vine per hectare. For those vines planted before 2002, the Espalier system, Pergola Inclinata and Pergoletta Veronese are allowed. Soave DOCG may be released on to the market only after 1 September of the year following the harvest and after bottle aging of at least three months.


- Soave "Cru": As early as 2000 a first mapping of the macro-zones within the Soave Classico zone was carried out, which led to an initial substantial identification of macro-areas whose wines were characterized by similar aromatic and organoleptic qualities. The more detailed research on the vineyards of Soave (2005-2008), carried out by the Consorzio, has been based on the numerous studies already effected, and in particular on that concerning zoning, files were prepared on the most significant wine companies in each of the various homogeneous zones that had been identified, listing the wineries, the labels and the characteristics of the wines.


- Other wines: The grape requirements for Recioto di Soave DOCG wines are the same as for basic Soave but the grapes are left longer on the vine to accumulate more sugars and such need to be fermented to higher levels of alcohols. Reciotos are fermented to a minimum of 14% of alcohol but still retain distinct sweetness due to the high concentrations of sugars that came from the grapes' desiccation on the vine.


Soave Superiore DOCG wines can also receive a Riserva designation provided the wine is fermented to a minimum alcohol level of 12.5% and is aged a minimum of 24 months (with at least 3 of those months being in the bottle) before it is released on the market.


- Production and style: By the mid-1990s Soave was producing around 6 million cases annually with more than 80% of that being produced by the region's local co-operative and sold in bulk to importers who release the wine under private labels. A sizable amount of this wine comes from the flat pianura land outside the hilly classico region in the heart of the Soave zone. Most of the more critically acclaimed Soave comes from the hillside vineyards in the Classico zone though critics have argued that this designation does not mean as much since the DOC/G changes of the early 21st century.


For most of its history, Soave was produced in a medium-bodied style that was often compared to Chardonnay, except with a distinct bitter almond note. In the 1980s and 1990s, production styles shifted to producing more lighter and crisper styles that were closer to Pinot grigio than to Chardonnay. But at the turn of the 21st century, production trends were shifting towards a Soave that better reflected its own character and that of the Garganega grape.


Master of Wine Mary Ewing-Mulligan describes some of the Soave being produced today as light-bodied, straw-colored wine that has fresh, fruity notes.


In 2009, Cantina di Soave co-operative with 2,200 members, generated 48% of total Soave DOC production and 43% of Soave Classico. According to wine critic and author Kerin O'Keefe Cantina di Soave together with seven other co-ops, including the outstanding Cantina di Monteforte, have long been a defining element in the denomination. But over the past decade many growers have begun bottling their own wine, further fuelling a shift towards higher standards.


Confusingly for consumers though, some of the best independent producers, such as Gini, Pieropan and Tessari are not using the Soave Superiore DOCG designation, as they feel that well-made Soave Classico DOC wines have slightly less alcohol and extract than the DOCG demands, but are nonetheless more refined and long-lived than the supposedly superior designation.


SOAVE WINES

Soave, dry white wine from the Veneto region of north east Italy. Like the neighbouring Valpolicella zone, the Soave zone has expanded enormously with the creation of the Soave DOC in 1968. At the time, both regions were enjoying an export boom, so production flowed off the small hilly zone onto the alluvial plain of the Adige river. The Classico zone, first defined and delimited in 1927 and currently comprising about 1,100 ha/ 2,720 acres of mostly Hillside Vineyards, is the source of superior Soave. The eastern part of the zone, in the commune of Monteforte d’Alpone, where the vineyards are planted on decomposed volcanic rock, produces steelier wines than those from the western part in the commune of Soave, where the higher percentage of limestone in the soil and the warmer afternoon sun gives fuller, more forward wines.


Today, there are also about 4,000 ha of vineyard on the plain, and these are responsible for the bulk of ordinary Soave. The quality oriented producers from the hills have long struggled with the fact that their wines, no matter how good, will always be associated with these lower priced wines. The introduction of docg in 2002 seemed a good time to deal with this issue, but compromise won the day. Instead, the whole issue of Soave was complicated further: DOCG was introduced for Soave Superiore, which can be made only from grapes grown on the hills previously mapped out for the Recioto di Soave DOCG. If in the Classico zone, this wine will be Soave Classico Superiore DOCG. If from outside the Classico zone, but from the hills, it will be Soave Colli Scaligeri Superiore DOCG. But not all wines from the hills will be DOCG. This being dependent on them having a minimum alcohol level of 12 per cent.


On a more positive note, the new law has seen Trebbiano Toscano excluded from the blend for DOCG. This interloper was introduced to the area in the 1960s, when high yields were more important, and it soon displaced the local Trebbiano di Soave (which is, in fact, Verdicchio). The new law allows for a minimum of 70 per cent Garganega and up to 30 per cent of Trebbiano di Soave, Chardonnay, or Pinot Bianco, although Trebbiano Toscano remains a mainstay in the bulk of Soave from the plain. As a result, there are about four bottles of very basic Soave produced for every bottle of Soave Classico.


When yields are controlled, Garganega can give wines of real class. A lateripening variety, it has a thick skin that helps protect it against the autumn mists rising from the northern part of the Po valley. Producers such as Pieropan, Gini, Pra, and Ca’ Rugate are now illustrating the real potential not only of Garganega but also of the Soave zone.


Garganega is also the mainstay of the sweet Recioto di Soave, a Passito made from raisined Garganega grapes with a long local tradition. DOCG status was granted in 1998 and about 1,800 hl were produced in 2003.


GARGANEGA GRAPE VARIETY

Garganega is a variety of white Italian wine grape widely grown in the Veneto region of North East Italy, particularly in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza. It is Italy's 6th most widely planted white grape. It forms the basis of Venetian white wine Soave and is also a major portion of the blend used to make Gambellara.


DNA typing studies in 2003 and 2008 have confirmed that the Grecanico Dorato (Grecanio) grape of Sicily is identical to Garganega. Already before these studies, ampelographers believed the grapes to be related due to the similarities of clusters, berries and leaf characteristics.


- Wine regions: In the Soave region, Garganega is the primary grape and can compose anywhere from 70 to 100% of the blend with Trebbiano and Chardonnay being its usual blending partners. In the Classico zone of Soave, where yields are most often kept in check, the grape can produce a delicate wine with lemon, almond and spicy notes. In addition to Soave, Garganega is also widely grown in the Gambellara, Bianco di Custoza, Colli Berici and Colli Euganei DOCs. Outside of the Veneto, there are some plantings in the Umbria and Friuli wine regions.


When grown in Sicily under the name Grecanico Dorato, the grapes ripens late and can produce a wine with tangy acidity.


- Viticulture and wines: The Garganega vine has a tendency to ripen late and can be very vigorous. In the fertile flatlands outside the Soave Classico zone, the grape can produce excessively high yields that lead to very thin and neutral flavored wines. The acid levels in Garganega lends itself well to the production of sweet recioto wines that have the potential to improve with bottle age for a decade or more.


- Pedigree: An Italian study published in 2008 using DNA typing showed a close genetic relationship between Garganega on the one hand and several other Italian grape varieties on the other hand: Albana, Catarratto, Empibotte, Greco Bianco del Pollino, Malvasia di Candia a Sapore Semplice, Marzemina bianca, Montonico bianco and Trebbiano Toscano (also known as Ugni blanc). It is possible that Garganega is one of the parents of each of these grape varieties. However, since the parents of Garganega have not been identified, the exact nature of the relationship in each case could not be conclusively established.[2] The results were of particular interest, since these seven grape varieties are spread from north to south Italy (and Trebbiano Toscano beyond Italy's border), which indicates that Garganega is a key variety in the pedigree of white Italian grape varieties.


- Synonyms: Garganega is also known under the synonyms D'Oro, Decanico, Dorana di Venetia, Garganega Comune, Garganega di Gambellara, Garganega Gentile, Garganega Grossa, Garganega Piramidale, Garganega Veronese, Gracanico Dorato, Grecani, Grecanico, Grecanico Bianco, Grecanico Dorato, Grecanicu Biancu, Grecanio, Greccanico, Lizzara, Malvasia de Manresa, Ora, Oro, Ostesa, Ostesona, and Recanicu.


GAGANEGA VINES

- Wine: Garganega is delicate white closely associated with Soave whose vigour and yields need strict control.
- Principal synonyms: Grecanico Dorato(Sicilia), Malvasia de Manresa(Catalunya in Spain).
- Varieties commonly mistaken for garganega: Dorna Di Venecia(Veneto), Ribolla Gialla, Vitovsa (Italy and Slovenia).


- Origins and parentage: Garganega is an old variety from the Veneto in north-east Italy, first mentioned in the thirteenth-century treatise of the Italian agronomist Pietro de Crescenzi as a grape cultivated in the Bologna and Padova regions.


DNA profiling provided surprising evidence that Garganega is identical to Grecanico Dorato from Sicilia and, even more surprising, to Malvasia de Manresa from Catalunya in Spain, which is no longer cultivated. Comparison of DNA profiles also suggested some genetic similarities between Garganega and several other old varieties from the province of Verona: Corvina Veronese, Oseleta, Rondinella and Dindarella, thereby confirming that Garganega has it roots in this area. Garganega is also a parent of Susumaniello through a natural crossing with Uva Sogra, a variety that is no longer cultivated but has the same DNA profile as Uva Sacra, a local table grape of Puglia.


In addition, DNA parentage analysis has shown that parent-ofispring relationships exist between Garganega and at least eight other varieties: Albana, Catarratto Bianco, Dorona Di Venezia, Malvasia Bianca Di Candia, Marzemina Bianca, Montonico Bianco, Mostosa and Trebbiano Toscano. Garganega was aslo used to breed Incrocio Bianco Fedit.


- Other hypotheses: It has been argued that this variety has a polyclonal origin, meaning that vines of this variety derive from more than one original seed.


Like many older Italian grapes, Garganega is supposed by some to be of Greek origin, which could explain its name, Grecanico Dorato, on Sicilia. However, comparison of DNA profiles did not show any relationship with modern Greek varieties. It is more likely that grapes used to make sweet wines were called Greco Something in reference to the famous sweet Greek wines, not because they have any relationship with Greek varieties.


- Viticultural charactaristics: Vigorous, very productive (so needs careful management) and late ripening.


- Where it´s grown and what its wine tastes like: Garganega, from the Veneto region in Italy, is most well known as the mainstay (minimum 70%) of Soave in all its forms, including Classico and Recioto. It is also the predominant variety in Gambellara DOC and is an authorized ingredient in several others such as Bianco di Custoza, Colli Benci and Colli Euganei. Its most common blending partner is Trebbiano di Soave (Vercicchio Bianco) but many producers include a small percentage of Chardonnay to fill it out. Varietal versions are allowed in the Veneto DOCs of Arcole, Colli Berici and Garda and it is authorized in the blend of a few DOCs further afield, in Lombardia and Trentino-Alto Adige. Further south, in Umbria, it can reach higher ripeness levels than in its more familiar territory in the north.


The best examples of Soave, generally from the Classico zone when yields have been restricted to allow the grapes to ripen fully, are characterized by lemon and almond flavours and a fine grainy texture like that of fresh pears. This delicacy combines with fresh acidity to give wines that may be steely and yet still tantalizingly spicy. The best exponents of the variety include Anselmi (who choose the greater freedom of working outside the Soave DOC regulations), Ca´ Rugate, Inama, Cantina di Monteforte and Pieropan.


Under the name Grecanico Dorato, or sometimes just Grecanico, this variety has been cultivated on Sicilia for several centuries, mainly in the north west and west, around Trapani, Palermo and Agrigento. It features in the Alcamo, Contea di Sclafani, Contessa Entellina, Delia Nivolelli, Erice, Menfi, Monreale, Santa Margherita di Belice and Sciacca DOCs. There were 5,358 ha ( 13,240 acres) on Sicilia in 2008. COS make an excellent blend of 50% Grecanico, 50% Inzolia, which is rich and nutty and full of flavour.


A total of 11,637 ha (28,756 acres) was recorded in the Italian agricultural census in 2000.


Further afield in Australia, Politini Wines in King Valley, Victoria, harvested their first Grecanico crop in 2009 and are experimenting with both still and sparkling versions, although Domain Day at Mount Crawford in the Barossa were the first to plant this variety outside Italy (firn vintage 2004).







1 comentario:

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